My Heart Belongs to Kashmir: An Analysis of a Pro-Indian Army Covert Influence Operation on Twitter

Placeholder Show Content



On August 24, 2022, Twitter shared 15 datasets of information operations it identified and removed from the platform with researchers in the Twitter Moderation Research Consortium for independent analysis. One of these datasets included 1,198 accounts that tweeted about India and Pakistan. Twitter suspended the network for violating their Platform Manipulation and Spam Policy, and said that the presumptive country of origin was India. Our report builds on a report on this same network by the Australian Strategic Policy Institute.

The network tweeted primarily in English, but also in Hindi and Urdu. Accounts claimed to be proud Kashmiris and relatives of Indian soldiers. Tweets praised the Indian Army’s military successes and provision of services in India-administered Kashmir and criticized the militaries of China and Pakistan. Two accounts existed to target specific individuals who were perceived as enemies of the Indian government.


Type of resource text
Date created September 21, 2022
Date modified September 21, 2022
Publication date September 20, 2022; September 21, 2022


Author Grossman, Shelby
Author Tianshi, Emily
Author Thiel, David
Author DiResta, Renee


Subject India
Subject Twitter
Subject Takedown
Subject Social media
Subject Information Operation
Genre Text
Genre Report

Bibliographic information

Access conditions

Use and reproduction
User agrees that, where applicable, content will not be used to identify or to otherwise infringe the privacy or confidentiality rights of individuals. Content distributed via the Stanford Digital Repository may be subject to additional license and use restrictions applied by the depositor.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial No Derivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND).

Preferred citation

Preferred citation
Grossman, S., Tianshi, E., Thiel, D., and DiResta, R. (2022). My Heart Belongs to Kashmir: An Analysis of a Pro-Indian Army Covert Influence Operation on Twitter. Stanford Digital Repository. Available at


Stanford Internet Observatory, Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies

View other items in this collection in SearchWorks

Contact information

Also listed in

Loading usage metrics...