Environmental change and human health : studies on vector-borne disease transmission and wildfire smoke pollution
- While there is widespread recognition that anthropogenic global changes are leading to human and planetary health crises, we often lack nuanced, causal estimates of these effects and do not fully understand their magnitude or extent. In this dissertation, I focus on two particular effects of environmental change on human health: vector-borne disease transmission and air pollution from wildfire smoke. In the first chapter of this dissertation, I focus on spillover of yellow fever virus in Brazil. I parameterize a mechanistic model of spillover and find environmental risk, based on the ecology of sylvatic vectors and non-human primates, distinguishes between locations and times with spillover better than risk metrics incorporating vaccine coverage or human population density. In my second chapter, I examine the effect of gold mining on malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon, using data on reported cases of malaria and gold production inferred from financial asset taxes from 2010 to 2015. I find that gold mining increases malaria transmission both in the municipality in which production occurs and up to 250km away. In my third chapter, I predict fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from wildfire smoke in the US. Using data from ground monitors, satellite imagery and global reanalyses, I calculate anomalies in PM2.5 that can be attributed to smoke and train a model to predict smoke PM2.5 to produce daily estimates of wildfire smoke over the contiguous US from 2006 to 2020. Concentrations of smoke PM2.5 have grown by up to 5μg/m3 in some areas of the Western US and the number of people living in locations with extreme smoke days over 100μg/m3 has grown 27-fold in the last decade. These chapters contribute to our understanding of the important linkages between environmental change and human health.
|Type of resource
|electronic resource; remote; computer; online resource
|1 online resource.
|Childs, Marissa Lynn
|Degree committee member
|Degree committee member
|Emmett Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources (Stanford University)
|Statement of responsibility
|Marissa Lynn Childs.
|Submitted to the Emmett Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources (Stanford University).
|Thesis Ph.D. Stanford University 2022.
- © 2022 by Marissa Lynn Childs
- This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC).
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