On the predictive power of graph neural networks
- Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) are a class of deep learning models for making predictions on graph-structured data. Many different GNN models have been proposed to achieve promising empirical performance. However, their architectural designs were ad-hoc, and their theoretical understanding remained limited. Moreover, these models were developed on small graph benchmark datasets, which altogether limit the development of powerful GNNs for real-world prediction tasks over graphs. In this thesis, we aim to build powerful predictive GNNs by understanding, improving, and benchmarking the predictive power of GNNs---the ability of GNNs to make accurate predictions over graphs. This thesis consists of three parts. In Part I, we develop a theoretical framework for understanding the predictive power of GNNs. We specifically focus on the expressive power, asking whether GNNs can express desired functions over graphs. We use our theoretical framework to provide insight into whether a given GNN is powerful enough to model the ground-truth target function that underlies the data. We also propose a maximally-expressive GNN model that can provably model most functions over graphs. Equipped with the framework to design expressive GNN models, in Part II, we move on to improve their predictive power on unseen/unlabeled data, i.e., improve the generalization power of GNNs. Motivated by real-world applications, we develop methods for improving the generalization power of GNNs under two common limited data scenarios: limited labeled data and limited edge connectivity. Finally, in Part III, we create new graph benchmark datasets to resolve the issues with the existing benchmarks and to engage the community toward improving the predictive power of GNNs. We present the Open Graph Benchmark (OGB) and OGB-LSC, a collection of challenging, realistic, and large-scale benchmark datasets for machine learning on graphs. We discuss the impact our benchmarks have had in advancing the predictive power of GNNs and conclude with future challenges of applying GNNs to real-world prediction tasks.
|Type of resource
|electronic resource; remote; computer; online resource
|1 online resource.
|Degree committee member
|Degree committee member
|Stanford University, Computer Science Department
|Statement of responsibility
|Submitted to the Computer Science Department.
|Thesis Ph.D. Stanford University 2022.
- © 2022 by Weihua Hu
- This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license (CC BY).
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