Stochastic theory for self-other expectations. [TR 1]

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This report introduces the concept of self-other expectations (Joseph Berger’s [1958] dissertation also includes that term, although defined slightly differently), and develops propositions about their behavioral consequences. It presents a Markov model predicting stability or change in expectation states from different behaviors. Markov models assume that change of state (from one expectation pattern to another) depend only on the previous state and the transition probabilities. This concern became important in developing tasks for testing the theory, as seen in TRs #11 and #15.) TR#1 ends with a note that “Research is presently under way to develop an experimental situation…which…will provide the type of test data required….” Developing that experimental design is described in Berger (2007)

[Annotation by Murray Webster, Feb.2014]


Type of resource text
Date created February 1961


Author Berger, Joseph 1924-
Author Snell, J. Laurie (James Laurie), 1925-2011
Publisher Stanford University, Department of Sociology, Laboratory for Social Research


Subject Expectation (Psychology)
Subject Decision Making
Subject Markov model
Genre Technical report

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Preferred Citation
Berger, Joseph and Snell, J. Laurie. (1961). Stochastic theory for self-other expectations. Technical Report 1, Laboratory for Social Research, Stanford University Department of Sociology. Stanford Digital Repository. Available at:


Laboratory for Social Research Technical Report Series (1961-1985), Stanford University Department of Sociology

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