Interface-engineered Ge MOSFETs for future high performance CMOS applications
- As the semiconductor industry approaches the limits of traditional silicon CMOS scaling, introduction of performance boosters like novel materials and innovative device structures has become necessary for the future of CMOS. High mobility materials are being considered to replace Si in the channel to achieve higher drive currents and switching speeds. Ge has particularly become of great interest as a channel material, owing to its high bulk hole and electron mobilities. However, replacement of Si channel by Ge requires several critical issues to be addressed in Ge MOS technology. High quality gate dielectric for surface passivation, low parasitic source/drain resistance and performance improvement in Ge NMOS are among the major challenges in realizing Ge CMOS. Detailed characterization of gate dielectric/channel interface and a deeper understanding of mobility degradation mechanisms are needed to address the Ge NMOS performance problem and to improve PMOS performance. In the first part of this dissertation, the electrical characterization results on Ge NMOS and PMOS devices fabricated with GeON gate dielectric are presented. Carrier scattering mechanisms are studied through low temperature mobility measurements. For the first time, the effect of substrate crystallographic orientation on inversion electron and hole mobilities is investigated. Direct formation of a high-k dielectric on Ge has not given good results in the past. A good quality interface layer is required before the deposition of a high-K dielectric. In the second part of this dissertation, ozone-oxidation process is introduced to engineer Ge/insulator interface. Electrical and structural characterizations and stability analysis are carried out and high quality Ge/dielectric interface with low interface trap density is demonstrated. Detailed extraction of interface trap density distribution across the bandgap and close to band edges of Ge, using low temperature conductance and capacitance measurements is presented. Ge N-MOSFETs have exhibited poor drive currents and low mobility, as reported by several different research groups worldwide. In spite of the increasing interest in Ge, the major mechanisms behind poor Ge NMOS performance have not been completely understood yet. In the last part of this dissertation, the results on Ge NMOS devices fabricated with the ozone-oxidation and the low temperature source/drain activation processes are discussed. These devices achieve the highest electron mobility to-date, about 1.5 times the universal Si mobility. Detailed interface characterizations, trapping analyses and gated Hall device measurements are performed to identify the mechanisms behind poor Ge NMOS performance in the past.
|Type of resource
|electronic; electronic resource; remote
|1 online resource.
|2009, c2010; 2009
|Stanford University, Department of Electrical Engineering
|Wong, Hon-Sum Philip, 1959-
|Wong, Hon-Sum Philip, 1959-
|Statement of responsibility
|Submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering.
|Thesis (Ph.D.)--Stanford University, 2010.
- © 2010 by Duygu Kuzum
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