Design requirements for car-to-driver interaction in the context of semi-autonomous driving
- Autonomous driving at scale is approaching, yet human drivers are reluctant to relinquish control over their safety to a machine. Autonomous vehicle designers are thus challenged to mitigate user concern and promote trust—as well as to ensure safety under the new driving paradigm. If autonomous cars are to become commonplace, the car-to-driver interface must be designed around the user—driver and passenger. This research adopts a human-centered approach to interface design, studying the emotional responses and preferences of drivers in autonomous and semi-autonomous driving situations. The dissertation posits that the complex, rapid-response driving context calls for the car to provide advance, feed-forward information rather than just traditional feedback. This approach was tested in a set of four experiments: two involved semi-autonomous driving in a simulator environment using voice alerts, and two involved more fully autonomous driving in an actual car on public roadways using a visual display as the messaging medium. In all cases, drivers strongly preferred being kept in the information loop. Advance alerts, whether vocal or visual, alleviated anxiety, and increased the driver's alertness, sense of control, and trust in the technology. Messaging should be succinct; too much information overwhelmed drivers, who could not process multiple messages in the rapid-response driving context. Drivers considered the reasoning behind the car's autonomous action (e.g., "Obstacle ahead!") more salient than mere announcement of the car's action (e.g., "Car is braking"). Designers must beware that consumer preferences do not dictate the best (or safest) performance; study results anticipate potential tradeoffs between market appeal and safety. Beyond empirical results for specific message models, this work developed simulator and field research platforms that can be adapted for future investigations. The research culminates in core guidelines for designing an autonomous vehicle interface that satisfies driver needs.
|Type of resource
|electronic; electronic resource; remote
|1 online resource.
|Stanford University, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
|Leifer, Larry J
|Leifer, Larry J
|Statement of responsibility
|Submitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering.
|Thesis (Ph.D.)--Stanford University, 2014.
- © 2014 by Jea Min Koo
- This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license (CC BY).
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