Figures from "The wing pattern of Hydriomena Hübner,  (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae) lacks a predictable relationship with venation"
- Two simple models have been successfully applied to predict the relationship between wing pattern and venation in various lineages of Lepidoptera. However, neither of these models holds for the geometrid genus Hydriomena Hübner, . Wing patterns in Hydriomena were studied intensively during the 1920s after the description of the nymphalid groundplan, an idealized schematic that outlines the primary elements of butterfly wing patterns; geometrids strongly resemble butterflies and, until recently, were considered to be among their closest relatives. The evolution of wing pattern in Geometridae has been neglected since the 1930s. Here, the relationship between wing pattern and venation is examined for Hydriomena costipunctata Barnes & McDunnough, 1912 and the Hydriomena speciosata (Packard, 1873) group. These two lineages have some of the simplest wing patterns in Hydriomena, consisting of large, well-defined dark and light pattern elements. The relationship between wing pattern and venation varies considerably within and between these lineages and can even vary between the right and left wings on the same individual. Although many different wing patterns were observed on individuals examined for this study, not one can be reconciled with either of the models that successfully predict the relationship between wing pattern and venation in many other groups of Lepidoptera. This suggests that bands occurring on the wings of Hydriomena are not homologous with those on the wings of butterflies or of Acronictinae (Macroheterocera: Noctuidae), the only other two obtectomeran lineages for which the relationship between wing pattern and venation has been examined in recent years.
|Type of resource
|Schachat, Sandra R.
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